Mencius (Part 1)

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Mencius (Public Domain)

Mencius (372 – 289 BC), or Meng Ke, courtesy name Ziyu, was born in the state of Zou during the Warring States Period (475 – 221 BC). He wrote the book titled Mencius and was referred to as the “second Sage” after Confucius. Their philosophies are called the “doctrine of Confucius and Mencius.”

Mencius once said, “I am proficient in cultivating my noble spirit. It is the greatest and strongest force. It will fill heaven and earth with a noble mind. It must be matched with virtue and morality, otherwise it will lack force.” “Be impervious to the temptation of wealth and high position, do not be shaken by poverty, and do not be subdued by force.” Mencius advocated benevolent governance his whole life. In his dealings with feudal lords and nobility, he behaved neither submissively nor pompously. This originates from his great righteousness. His pursuit of the truth deeply influenced later generations.

Mencius’ view of destiny was that heaven possessed the highest will. The mandate of heaven determined the change in dynasties and emperors, rise and decline, and rich and poor. People had to follow the will of heaven and know how to dedicate, know heaven and do things for heaven. Those who submitted to heaven’s will prosper and those who defy it will die. Mencius emphasized moral cultivation. He considered morality to be a natural gift, innate to the human mind and conscience of people. If everyone is able to maintain goodness and strive to improve in self-cultivation, people can be like Emperors Yao and Shun. Both Mencius and Confucius toured various states to promote their teachings. Mencius spread the virtue and benevolent governance of the ancient emperors Yao, Yu Shun, and others across the states of Qi, Wei, Teng, Xue, Song, Zou and Liang. Lord Hui of the state of Wei treated him with a courteous reception and Lord Xuan of the state of Qi honored him as a high official. He persuaded them to apply benevolent governance that had won people’s hearts, and many times avoided war.

Mencius once traveled from Qi to Wei and was stopped by a heavy rain in the City of Gan. People found out about it and ran around spreading the news. Many people came to visit him to ask for advice. Seeing that the local people were so eager to learn, he thus decided to stay to lecture for several days. People of the city were proud to have received Mencius’ teachings, so they constructed a temple at the site where he taught. Mencius believed that a man of noble character must pursue morality, persuade monarchs to establish moral supremacy, value righteousness above material gain, and instill virtue in people’s hearts. The following are stories of his unswerving determination to urge people to do good.

Rule a Country With Righteousness, Why Talk About Benefits?

When visiting the state of Liang, Lord Hui of Liang said to him, “You have traveled a great distance to come here. You must have some things to benefit my country?” Mencius replied, “Lord, why talk about benefits? It is sufficient to discuss righteousness. Your highness says, ‘How can it benefit my country?’ The prominent ministers say, ‘How can it benefit my family?’ The common folk say, ‘How does it benefit me?’ As a result, everyone will be competing for his or her own benefits. Then the country will be in danger! In a country with 10,000 military vehicles, often the senior officers who own 1,000 military vehicles will kill their monarch. In a country owning 1,000 military vehicles, the monarch is often killed by the senior officers who own 100 military vehicles. You cannot say that these senior officers do not own enough. However, those who put their own interests above righteousness will never be satisfied with what they already own and will try to seize their monarch’s position. Those who never speak of benevolence are willing to abandon their parents. Those who never think of righteousness will abandon their monarch. Therefore, it is sufficient for your highness to deliberate righteousness. Why discuss benefits?”

The prominent historian Sima Qian (145 – 86 BC) in the Western Han Dynasty revealed that he often sighed when reading this dialogue between Mencius and Lord Hui, “Personal interest is really the source of chaos!”

浩然之氣 至大至剛 (一)

孟子名軻,字子輿,戰國時期鄒國人,著有《孟子》一書。有「亞聖」之稱,與孔子合稱為「孔孟」、「孔孟之道」。

孟子說:「吾善養吾浩然之氣」、「其為氣也,至大至剛……其為氣也,配義與道」,這是一種充滿正義、充滿仁義道德的正氣、骨氣。「富貴不能淫,貧賤不能移,威武不能屈。」孟子一生倡導仁政,在與諸侯王公交往中不卑不亢,這源於他擁有充塞天地的浩然正氣。他對真理的追求和做人深深影響著後人。

孟子的天命觀思想認為天是最高的有意志的,人世間的朝代更替、君王易位,以及興衰存亡、富貴窮達,均是由天命所定。人對於天必須百依百順,要懂得「盡心」、「知天」和「事天」,「順天者昌,逆天者亡」,天意是不可抗拒的。孟子重視道德修養,認為道德是天賦的,是人心所固有的,是人的良知本性,如果人人能夠保持善性並努力提高自己的修養,那麼「人皆可為堯舜」。孟子和孔子一樣都是周遊列國而弘道。孟子到齊、魏、滕、薛、宋、鄒、樑等國,所述乃唐堯、虞舜以及夏、商、週三代之德及王道,受到魏惠王等的禮遇,被齊宣王拜為上卿,使其行仁政,民心歸附,多次避免了戰爭的發生。

當時孟子聲望頗高,據傳,孟子一次從齊國到魏國,途經干城被大雨所阻,一時間人們奔走相告,孟子住處門庭若市,登門求教者絡繹不絕。孟子見此地人如此好施樂道,決定留下講學數日。干城人也以此為榮,後來就在孟子講學的地方建「先師廟」,也稱「孟軻廟」。孟子認為君子必須只追求符合道義的東西,勸化君臣、百姓樹立道義至上、重義輕利的思想觀念,使德入人心。以下為他堅定不移勸善的幾個故事。

以義治國,何必言利

孟子來到樑國,梁惠王說:「先生不遠千里而來,一定是有甚麼對我的國家有利的高見吧?」孟子回答說:「大王!何必說利呢?只要說仁義就行了。大王說‘怎樣使我的國家有利?’大夫說‘怎樣使我的家庭有利?’一般人士和老百姓說 ‘怎樣使我自己有利?’結果是上上下下互相爭奪利益,國家就危險了啊!在一個擁有一萬輛兵車的國家裡,殺害他國君的人,往往是擁有一千輛兵車的大夫;在一個擁有一千輛兵車的國家裡,殺害他國君的人,往往是擁有一百輛兵車的大夫。這些大夫在一萬輛兵車的國家中就擁有一千輛,在一千輛兵車的國家中就擁有一百輛,他們的擁有不算不多。可是,如果把義放在後而把利擺在前,他們不奪得國君的地位是永遠不會滿足的。反過來說,從來沒有講‘仁’的人卻拋棄父母的,從來也沒有講‘義’的人卻不顧君王的。所以,大王只說仁義就行了,何必說利呢?」西漢司馬遷說自己每次讀孟子見梁惠王,常常感嘆不已:利實在是天下大亂的原因啊!

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