A Discussion of “Righteousness” (Part 1)

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A Discussion of “Righteousness” (Part 1)

The Chinese character for righteousness (義) contains a wide range of meaning in regards to morality. It is also one of the core elements of traditional Chinese culture. When mentioning the character “righteousness,” people might first think of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese Literature. Although the novel chronicles the lives of feudal lords during the Three Kingdoms era, the interpretation of “righteousness” is expounded throughout the book. The stories of Zhuge Liang, who exemplified loyalty to the nation and trustworthiness, and the anecdotes of Guan Yu’s sense of justice have exerted tremendous influence for generations.

There is a story called “A Righteous Woman Repels an Army.” During the Spring and Autumn Period, the State of Qi attacked the State of Lu. In order to escape from the Qi army, a Lu woman was found running in the outskirts of the city. She carried a child in one arm, and dragged another child with her other hand. When a Qi soldier ran after her, she let go of the child in her arm, and kept the child she was holding in her hand. A soldier caught up to her and asked her, “Why did you let go of the child in your arm, and kept the child you held in your other hand?” She replied, “The child I held in my hand is my older brother’s son, the child in my arm is my son. I was not able to take both of them, so I let go of my son.” When the general from the Qi army heard her response, he asked, “Which one do you love more, your brother’s son or your own son?” The woman replied, “The love I have for my own child is a selfish kind of love. But I have a sense of righteousness toward my brother’s son. Although it hurts to let go of my own child, keeping my brother’s son is the right thing to do.” The Qi general stopped the attack on Lu. He said, “Even a woman from the State of Lu understands the meaning of righteousness. How can I attack a benevolent and righteous state like Lu?” He ordered his army to return to Qi. The woman’s own son was able to return home safely as well. When the Duke of Lu heard the story, he sent many gifts to the woman and bequeathed her the name of “Righteous Lady.”

There is an ancient saying, “I want to be both alive and righteous. When I’m unable to keep both, I shall give up my life and be righteous.” “Righteousness” enables one to tell right from wrong, be fair, rational, and moral. It is what keeps the society stable, and what keeps relations amongst people harmonious. However, since the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) took over China, it has destroyed the 5,000 years of traditional Chinese culture, and treated the Chinese people with “treachery” and “infidelity.” It has taught people to fight against and target each other, and to eliminate spiritual beliefs.

For example, although Peng Dehuai saved Mao Zedong’s life several times, Mao wanted to kill Peng because he criticized Mao at the Lushan Meeting. Pro-democracy activists, Zhang Baijun, Luo Longji, and Chu Anping, and hundreds of thousands of intellectuals who were encouraged by Mao to advise the CCP under the promise of “No beatings, no name-calling, and absolutely no retaliation,” were later labeled as “right wing” when they spoke some facts, and consequently tortured, insulted, and killed. During the Cultural Revolution, people lied, cheated, and betrayed their friends, family, and colleagues to protect themselves in order to survive. “Righteousness” no longer existed and morality declined rapidly.

After the “reform and opening-up policy,” the CCP promoted “money worship.” Without moral constraints, people pursued materialism, which created endless social problems. People came up with ruthless money making schemes and tricks to obtain personal gain.

說義 (上)

「義」是含義極廣的道德範疇,也是中國傳統文化中核心的部分。提起「義」,人們最先想到也許就是中國四大名著之一的《三國演義》,這部書內容上雖然寫的是三國紛爭的歷史故事,然而對「義」的詮釋卻是貫穿全書的宗旨。諸葛亮「鞠躬盡瘁死而後已」的忠義,「七擒孟獲」講的是信義;關雲長「義不屈節、父子歸神」,這些膾炙人口的故事流傳甚遠,對人的影響極其廣泛。

《義姑退兵》說的是,春秋時期,齊國攻打魯國,在郊外遇到一個婦人,一隻手攜著一個孩子,另一隻手抱著一個孩子在跑,齊國的士兵就去追她。那個婦人就把手裡抱著的小孩子丟掉了,帶著攜的孩子一同跑,士兵把那個婦人追到了,就問她:「你丟了手裡抱著的孩子,卻帶著攜著的孩子一同逃走,這是甚麼緣故呢?」那個婦人就說:「剛才帶著走的,是我哥哥的兒子;拋棄了的是我自己的兒子,我看著這個情勢,是不能兩存的,所以寧可把我自己的兒子丟了。」齊國的將官聽了,就說:「哥哥的兒子和自己的兒子,哪一個比較親些呢?」那個婦人說:「對於自己的兒子,是一種私愛,對於哥哥的兒子,是一種公義。拋棄了自己的兒子,雖然心裡肉痛,可是從公義上說,還是這樣做是對的。」齊國的將官就把自己的軍隊約束住了,不再去攻打魯國,並且說:「魯國的一個女子,都如此深明大義,這般仁義的國家,哪裡可以去攻打他們呢?」於是就帶了兵回去。那婦人丟掉的自己的兒子也得以保全。魯公得知了這件事,就送給婦人許多禮物,並且送她一個名號,叫「義姑姊」。

「生,亦我所欲也,義,亦我所欲也,二者不可得兼,捨生而取義者也」。 「義」讓人明辨是非,不逾越公正、公理、公德做事,保證著社會的穩定、人與人的和諧共處。然而自中共奪權篡政以來,將中華民族五千年的傳統文化破壞殆盡,取而代之的是「背信棄義」、「忘恩負義」式的對人民、對所謂的其專政下的敵人檢舉揭發、無情打擊、消滅思想、消滅肉體。

以其黨魁毛澤東為例,彭德懷幾次出生入死救過毛的命,在廬山會議上,彭剛剛批評了毛幾句,毛就翻臉無情,欲置彭於死地。章伯鈞、羅隆基、儲安平這些被中共利用過的民主黨派人士、和有見地、有思想的幾十萬知識份子,在「反右」初期受毛的給黨提意見的鼓動和「不打棍子、不扣帽子、絕不秋後算帳」欺騙,出來說了幾句實話就被毫無信義的毛打成「右派」,受盡折磨、侮辱、甚至含冤而終。文革時期人們為了保全自己,出賣家人、朋友、同事蔚然成風,說謊話、落井下石成為人們生存的保障。 「義」蕩然無存,人的道德急速下滑。

所謂的「改革開放」以後,中共宣傳「拜金主義」,沒有道德的約束,對錢財、物慾瘋狂的追求致使社會問題層出不窮。 「厚黑術」、「犬儒症」、投機鑽營、爾虞我詐氾濫橫行。

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